I have 2 Nokia E90 phones. First one has app called "Podcasting" by Nokia, there is page at Internet Archive:
Where can I download this Podcasting software? It's very good, it can play Podcasts when phone screen is not on.
I have not found a way to play podcasts on my Android phone when screen is not on, and Android phone is in my pocket.
Which Android app did you try?
It is up to the app developer, to support streaming and playback under locked screen (and to support Android 8) and you may have to enable 'use mobile data' when away from WiFi.
Podcast Go from the Play Store get good reviews and it's an affordable purchase to avoid ads, but there are many to choose from.
My Android phone is used for other tasks, and does not have as good battery as my Nokia E90.
Nokia E90 has large powerful battery that I ordered from mugen.co at Hongkong, and there also came larger back cover so battery fits in. Nokia E90 also has excellent keyboard and multitasking.
I would prefer to download that Podcasting app for Nokia E90, if possible.